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Olfactory System: Anatomy and Physiology, Pathways, Animation. [Video]

Olfactory System: Anatomy and Physiology, Pathways, Animation.

(USMLE topics) Olfaction: A&P of special senses – sense of smell; loss of smell – anosmia; clinical significance. This video is available for instant download licensing here: https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/galleries/narrated-videos-by-topics/anatomy-physiology-basics/-/medias/e218e86b-4798-4486-878e-222c6628470e-olfactory-system-narrated-animation
©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
Voice by : Marty Henne
Support us on Patreon and get early access to videos and free image downloads: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia
The olfactory system is responsible for the sense of smell, or olfaction. Basically, airborne molecules emitted by an odorant source are detected by olfactory sensory neurons located at the roof of the nasal cavity. These neurons convert chemical stimuli into electrical signals and send them via the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb, then to the brain, where they are interpreted as odors.
Odorant molecules are first dissolved in the mucus secreted by the olfactory epithelium, which guides them to the cilia of olfactory neurons. This is where odorant molecules bind to their receptors. Each neuron expresses a single type of protein receptor. There are only about 400 different receptors in humans, but they are used in a combinatorial way such that one odorant can bind several receptors, and one receptor can bind several odorants. This enables the olfactory system to recognize an enormous number of odorants.
Odorant receptors are G protein-coupled. Upon binding to the odorant, a signaling cascade is activated, leading to membrane depolarization. When the olfactory stimulus is strong enough, action potentials are generated and conducted along the axon to the olfactory bulb.
The axons of all olfactory sensory neurons form the olfactory nerve, also known as cranial nerve I. In the olfactory bulb, these axons synapse with second-order neurons – the mitral and tufted cells, within structures called glomeruli. Each glomerulus receives axons from sensory neurons that express the same protein receptor.
The second-order neurons are stimulated by sensory neurons, but they also receive inhibitory feedback from the cerebral cortex. This means an odor can be perceived differently under different circumstances. For example, the smell of food is more appealing when one is hungry, and is less so when one is full.
The axons of mitral and tufted cells form the olfactory tracts, which project directly to the primary olfactory cortex. The primary olfactory cortex is not one but several cortical areas located on the base of the frontal lobe and inferior surface of the temporal lobe. These primary regions then project further to some other areas of the brain, mediating different aspects of odor recognition and response.
Because olfactory neurons are exposed directly to the noxious external environment, they are replaced more often than other neurons. Stem cells in the epithelium differentiate into new olfactory neurons, whose axons grow along the existing axons to the olfactory bulb. Any factors that destroy all olfactory neurons at once would result in permanent loss of sense of smell, a condition known as anosmia. Illnesses that cause inflammation of the nasal mucosa may lead to transient anosmia. Loss of smell also affects the taste experience, as taste and smell are the 2 aspects of flavor.
The ability to smell decreases with normal aging, but anosmia is also an early sign of several neurodegenerative disorders.
Because epileptic seizures often originate from the brain area associated with the olfactory cortex, seizures are often preceded by hallucinations of disagreeable odors.
All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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mirgi ka rohani ilaj in urdu || Epilepsy Treatment || [Video]

Assalamoalikum..!!I hope so all are fine and safe. May Allah Almighty protect you all from every trouble of life. May Allah almighty solve your all problems. Ameen sum ameen. Please subscribe my channel and press the bell icon for notification of every new video of Amliyaat. For any kind of problem you can join this group for personal contact. JazakAllah khair.Facebook group link 👇👇👇👇👇👇https://www.facebook.com/groups/13907...snak video link http://sck.io/2lB8hg7t___________________________________________________________________________Mirgi Ke Dora Ka ilajEpilepsy Treatment at Home in Urdu/Hindi Mirgi ki Bimari ka ilaj Epilepsy Treatment Rohani Ilaj (Spiritual Treatment) Mirgi ke Dore se Hifazat ke Wazaif___________________________________________________________________________tags #epilepsy_ka_ilaj #onlinerohaniustad#mirgi_ka_rohani_ilaj_in_quran#mirgi_ki_bimari_ka_taweez

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Epilepsy Research UK and Young Epilepsy Fellowship Award [Video]

This investment of nearly £300,000 by Young Epilepsy and Epilepsy Research UK has the potential to revolutionise brain scanning for children and young people with epilepsy by making "bedside brain imaging" a reality. The charities announced the unique research collaboration ahead of National Epilepsy Week, which runs from 24th – 30th May this year.

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EKG/ECG reading for Left anterior fascicular block, LAFB, left posterior fascicular block, LPFB, (hemiblocks) bifascicular, and trifascicular blocks. This video is available for instant download licensing here: https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/galleries/narrated-videos-by-topics/ekgecg/-/medias/ef780b01-775a-4da5-a93d-714b7637dfd9-fascicular-blocks-narrated-animation©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Voice by : Marty HenneSupport us on Patreon and get early access to videos and free image downloads: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMediaAll images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.The left bundle branch that delivers electrical signals to the left ventricle has 2 main fascicles: left anterior and left posterior, which conduct impulses to the anterior and posterior walls, respectively. There is also a small septal fascicle that activates the left septal surface. In normal conduction, the 3 fascicles start to depolarize simultaneously. In the first 10 ms, the anterior and posterior vectors move in nearly opposite directions, cancelling each other, so the initial overall electrical direction is mainly determined by the septal fascicle, which conducts from the left septal surface to the right. The major vector that follows is the combination of activation waves from the anterior and posterior fascicles. The net movement is downward and slightly left. Because this vector is responsible for depolarization of the main mass of the larger left ventricle, it represents the cardiac axis, defined as the net direction of electrical activity during depolarization.Left anterior fascicular block (LAFB) and left posterior fascicular block (LPFB) refer to an obstruction in the left anterior or left posterior fascicle, respectively. The hallmark of LAFB and LPFB is a deviation in the cardiac axis. In LAFB, the anterior branch is blocked, and the posterior fascicle must activate the entire left ventricle. At first, the impulses follow the posterior fascicle downward, toward the inferior leads, resulting in a small positive deflection, small r wave, in these leads. The signals then move up and leftward, through the myocardium, to the rest of the ventricle, producing a large negative deflection, large S wave, in inferior leads. The reverse is observed in lateral leads, which show small q, big R patterns. The cardiac axis is skewed left compared to normal conduction. Also, as one fascicle is doing the job of two, it takes slightly more time than usual, resulting in a small widening of the QRS complex, not more than 0.12 secs. LAFB may occur as an isolated finding, or in association with cardiovascular diseases. Isolated LAFB was thought to be benign but has recently been linked to higher risks for heart diseases.Left posterior fascicular block, LPFB, is much less common than LAFB, probably due to the fact that it is bigger in diameter, has better blood supply, and runs through a more protected area. In LPFB, the initial vector follows the intact anterior fascicle, which goes upward and leftward, producing a small positive deflection, small r, in lateral leads; and a small negative deflection, small q, in inferior leads. As impulses spread to the rest of the ventricle, the major vector directs downward and to the right, producing a big R in inferior leads, big S in lateral leads; and a right-ward shift in the cardiac axis. LPFB is almost always associated with coronary artery disease, especially myocardial infarction of the inferior wall. Bifascicular block is blockage of any 2 of the 3 fascicles: left anterior, left posterior and right bundle branch. The term is usually used to describe right bundle branch block plus LAFB, or LPFB. The ECG patterns reflect both conditions. The term “trifascicular block” means blockage of all 3 fascicles, which would equal to a complete heart block. In practice, however, it is used to refer to a variety of situations, including: a bifascicular block plus a first-degree or second-degree AV block; a right bundle branch block plus alternating LAFB and LPFB; alternating right and left bundle branch blocks; and bifascicular block plus third-degree AV block.

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#Epilepsy #Autism #TheDisordersCareThe Disorders care is a researched base small group that is dedicated to provide the necessary information relating disorders for parents and guardians of challenged kids so that not only they can timely identify the disorder and but also so that they can take better care of their children.