Johnson & Johnson’s COVID-19 Vaccine, How it works. Mechanism of JNJ coronavirus vaccine (same as Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine).
For comparison of different vaccines, as well as events of immune response, role of different immune cells (T-cells, B-cells, APC), see this video: https://youtu.be/osRo-yz1VQ8
Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine is a viral vector vaccine. It can also be classified as DNA vaccine or recombinant vaccines. It uses a modified adenovirus as a vehicle to deliver the coronavirus DNA. The adenoviral genome is modified to remove adenoviral genes, so it can no longer replicate or cause disease. The gene coding for coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) spike gene is then added. After being injected, the adenovirus vector delivers the coronavirus DNA to the nucleus of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The DNA is transcribed into mRNA, which exits to the cytoplasm, where it is translated into coronavirus spike protein. This protein is then cut into pieces and presented on the surface of APC as antigens for the immune system to detect. APCs move to the nearest lymph node, where they present the antigen to T-helper cells, which play central role in immune response. Helper T-cells activate cytotoxic T-cells, leading to cell-mediated immunity, and induce B-cells to produce antibodies, resulting in antibody-mediated immunity. Both of these branches produce long-lived memory cells that will respond immediately upon viral infection.
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